timelines of
worldclassbrands -what if purpose of brand leaders will exponentially determine succeess or failure of our final 40 year examination in species sustainability -launched in 1988 with a series in the economist - year of brand, death of brand manager- what needed to die as the world united around death of distance technolgues was the advertising paradim of battling for minds with a different brand for every new product and in every different language- what woud be the mos importnant new geres of brands? places? faiths? big data local platforms - how would adam smith and james watt quarter of a century 1760-2010 morph into humanising moore machine intel than human as we entered 4G and 5G decades: back in 1960s alumni of moore had promised 100 times more computation power every decade 0g 1970s onwards - thats an exponential of trillion times moore by end of 2030 than needed to code moon landing- such power depended on trust in collaboration around globalistion's most purposeful brand leaders as well as integration of community sized enterprse value chains if sustainabity golals were to be a united reality not just a greenwashing game

universityofstars -what if world class sporting leagues prepped uber champoins- once you're too old to stay top of the pops in sports song or beauty, what if you already know an sdg leader you want to share your and her alumni with
-launched 2004 in delhi with 100- gandhians after seeing some early reality tv competitions as well as writing up 184's story of the critical deadlines of morphing digital and pre-digital media to be the sustainably deepest of both not the socially most trivial -more

Fascinating to track with hudson institute how many european countries have given up with the official advice of mr trump on building g5 and are letting carriers just do it with whomever offers the best deal washington dc technology's biggest leap -breaking 14 nov - many nations and continents are racing into 2020s with probably the biggest innovation crisis ever du8e to greed of governments spectrum auctions at $G #G- failure to let the peoples use 5g video would 5G exist without china -discussion welcome chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

Thursday, May 21, 2020

updating 7 years research on who helps pope francis most with service learning - related last mile health www.fazleabed.com alumni freire, alumni ban ki-moon global citizenry

research question- who works directly for pope francis top cardinal of service learning at vatican university and eg hosts the annual http://www.premiosciacca.it

dear catholic friends may 2020- are you or your friends able to go up the local catholic and alumni networks in barcelona or new york to see who knows him
i am not sure he will remember our meeting

basically in rome early 2015 i tried to ask who would be in charge of curriculum not pr consequences of papal visit to un and us at time of sdgs- there was some linguistic difficulties in trying to explain why i was asking- i also tried to ask club of rome how they connected gorbachev and soros back inn new york but didnt get a proper answer - my 3rd visit on trip which was supposed to be with the knowledge officer of the un food goal 2 epicentre in rome was cancelled at short notice due to illness of person concerned-at the time they claimed to be main grameen intel partner on agriculture a partnership yunus wasted in ways sir fazle would not have- prior to all this i had chatted to paul farmer for 30 minsat central european university and he explained what culture of accompaniment/freire meant to him and virus fighting last mile youth - but when i interviewed both georgetown and catholic uni chief experts on this they were not linked in to last mile health servants - something very messy happens in dc at the gap between politics and service of health let alone data needed to ai health

can i suggest doing a zoom if you need more details- a zoom hosted by carnegie ethics yesterday estimates virus will double people starving to death in next year

chris  whatsapp/text +1240316 8157 washington dc - nih suburb

----- Forwarded message -----
From: Bruno 
To: "chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk" <chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk>
Cc: "avvcircosta" <avvcircosta@gmail.com>; "natasacircosta" 
Sent: Friday, 13 February 2015, 03:34:49 GMT-5
Subject: R: dear ...

Molte grazie.

Da: christopher macrae [mailto:chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk]
Inviato: venerdì 13 febbraio 2015 04:20
A: bruno
Cc: Circostas; ; sunita gandhi
Oggetto: dear 



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Rebecca Winthrop discusses the commonalities between the religious and global education communities and translating their shared core values into practical solution...
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Many thanks for the extraordinary conversation  and your precious  time last Friday-  many interesting things have started to spiral since my return to DC


1) in parallel DC's senior open minded economics thinktank brookings has written about the Pope Francis and education- I know how to contact brookings leadership team if I can be of any use

2) the most exciting youth empowerment team across the Americas has invited Pope Francis to join in the heads of state and youth entrepreneurs summit in panama in second week of April; I know the people (led by a young Peruvian male and Colombian female) who animate all the youth networks who converge (12th year ) in panama- please say if you want me to introduce you to them. I left Antonio the brochure launched as one of top 10 key  sessions at World Bank Group President Kim and Pope Francis Discuss Mutual Efforts to End Povertyworld bank youth summit last October


3) Kenya's most resourced Catholic networker of women empowerment has started testing my friend's 5 billion person elearning satellite yazmi.com with support of Muhammad Yunus first female director  Naila Chowdhury of mobile "living with poorest" partnerships back in 1996 - if you would like a demonstration of 5 billion person elearning satellite at any time in Rome please say

If there is someone at Catholic University DC that you could recommend my friends contact first I would welcome any advice. I believe Catholic Universities around the world can develop curricula that no other university network will do in time to help youth be fully involved in race to end poverty by living and learning with the poorest

sincerely
chris macrae
===============================================

Rebecca Winthrop Brookings

Important Education Advocate?

 

Pope Francis waves as he leaves after visiting the parish of San Michele Archangelo in Rome February 8, 2015.
Last week I found myself in the Vatican, taking part in a series of meetings on education, global citizenship, and peaceful co-existence. As a non-Catholic, this was new territory for me. Prior to the meeting, the little I knew about the Catholic Church could be captured on a flashcard, a mini, cliff-notes version of history. It all started in the first century A.D. during the Roman Empire when Jesus appointed Saint Peter as the church's leader (the first pope), many centuries of expansion and conflict followed, the Protestant reformation then occurred in the 1500s, a strong tradition of education among the Jesuits contributed to schooling expansion globally, and today divisive debates rage around abortion and the role of women. I knew similarly little about the Church's teachings. And the protocol materials sent prior to the meetings, while helpful because at least I knew what was expected, only served to reinforce the sound bites about the Church that you hear on the news. Women are to wear "pants and skirts below the knees, colorless nails, hair up and neat, without cleavage, shoulders covered, no tight clothes, dark colors." 

Two Communities, One Human Family

Given my limited knowledge, I decided I should prepare for the meeting and luckily happened upon several articles about Catholic social teaching. In those pages, I discovered a very different Church than what usually makes the media headlines. The concepts of human dignity, human equality, the right of all people to fully participate in society, and hence the call to provide special protection to the poor and vulnerable and to act in the common good were all present. In many ways the principles and focus of Catholic social teaching are similar to those in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, perhaps the one document that has inspired me the most to work on issues related to global poverty. In both cases, there is the powerful idea that all people are part of one human family—no matter who you are, where you are from, what gender you are, or how rich or how poor. The origins of this idea are different, of course, with one relying on the belief that each person is created in the image of God (and hence we must treat everyone as we would treat the Lord) and the other skipping the divine altogether and starting with the belief in the inherent dignity of all people (and hence "the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family").  Here was, in my view, one of the best-kept secrets of the Catholic Church. 
The ideas in Catholic social teaching were essential in giving me a frame of reference for my discussions at the Vatican. The meetings last week were convened by Scholas Occurentes, an Argentinian non-profit founded by Pope Francis when he was the Archbishop of Buenos Aires, and dedicated to connecting schools around the world in an effort to foster inter-cultural dialogue. Now, with Pope Francis sitting in Rome, the organization is seeking to broaden its scope, become more global, and take an ecumenical approach to the issues around global citizenship that Pope Francis has stated he wishes to continue to champion. Supporting the poor and vulnerable, focusing on human dignity and equality, ensuring everyone is part of and fully participating in society, were all principles strongly reflected in this work, as with much of the pope's actions throughout his life, and in Pope Francis's message at the meeting.  "We will not change the world, if we do not change education," said the pope. Teachers must be honored, he went on, for carrying the burden of educating our children virtually alone, but it is time that all members of society actively lend their support to this important responsibility. Ultimately, he laid out a social vision based on harmony (both within society and within oneself) to which the education of the world's young people should contribute.

If my trip to the Vatican taught me one thing it is that there is far more common ground between the religious and global education communities than first meets the eye. But how can Pope Francis and his team translate the core values we share into practical solutions for children and youth in developing countries? Here are my five recommendations:
1. Become a global education advocate. Global education, namely the focus on formal and non-formal learning opportunities in countries around the world, has been missing champions at the most senior level. This has been especially visible in the last 15 years as the global education community coalesced around trying to put all children in the world into primary school, the core of the education component of the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As colleagues in the global health sector, an equally important area of work, mobilized Bill Gates, a host of celebrities, multiple U.N. special envoys, and billions of dollars in additional financing to meet the health-related MDGs, progress in global education was made mainly on the backs of the poorest countries in the world—many of whom extended considerable effort to do whatever they could in the face of difficult constraints to improve education for their children. Not surprisingly, today corporations give 16 times more to global health than to global education, and the health-focused global fund in its last replenishment campaign raised $12 billion while the education-focused global fund raised less than $2 billion. 
Only within the last two years has there been a growing global profile to the world's education issues with, among others, the appointment of former U.K. Prime Minister Gordon Brown as the first U.N. Special Envoy for Global Education, the First Lady of Qatar Sheika Moza's global initiative to put 10 million children into school, and former Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard's new role as the chair of the board of the Global Partnership for Education. 
Additional voices are certainly needed—to call on governments both rich and poor alike to do more, to encourage civil society and the private sector to include education as a priority for their service and giving, and to remind people that it is not just any education that will do but one that promotes the values of global citizenship. This last point, in particular, needs more attention. In what could serve as an excellent starting point for Pope Francis's global education messages, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon recently issued a framework for education action that has three global priorities: 1) put every child into school, 2) improve quality learning, and 3) foster global citizenship.  In all of this Pope Francis could have an important role to play, as a leader who can pick up the phone to talk with any other heads of state, as an ethical voice in the debate, and as someone who can inspire people to act.  
2. Focus on the most marginalized. The commitment to the poor and the vulnerable takes on new meaning when moving from an Argentinian (or even Latin American) context to a global perspective. Virtually all children in Latin America have access to school, although the dropout rate at secondary school level is alarmingly high in some countries.  However, this is not the case globally.  There are 120 million children in the world who have no access to primary or junior secondary school at all, the majority of them are living in severe poverty in rural areas or unlucky enough to live in countries plagued by armed conflict.  There are also 130 million children around the world who are in schools of such poor quality that they are learning virtually nothing—after four years in school they have not mastered the very basics of reading, writing and math and are therefore at high risk of dropping out before the end of primary school.  While you will certainly find some of these children in Latin America, you will find many more spread across Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. 
These children and youth are the poorest of the poor globally and are in desperate need of programs, attention, and advocates on their behalf. Like their peers everywhere, they deserve an education that not only equips them with academic and workforce skills but also imparts a sense of community and a set of values reflecting global citizenship. To reach these young people, we cannot rely on the preferred approach used to date by the Scholas initiative of connecting students through computers in their classrooms (so many have no classrooms, and those that do certainly don't have access to the Internet or computers).  Rather, we need to focus on policies, programs, and interventions that bring learning to these young people, such as traveling teachers, homes and community centers doubling as schools for refugee children, and distance learning via mobile phones. Pope Francis and his team at Scholas have an important role to play in shining a spotlight on the needs of these forgotten children and driving action on their behalf. Any global citizenship initiative that does not include them in some way would seem to fly in the face of the basic principles in Catholic social teaching.    
3. Promote global citizenship within education systems. The competencies important for global citizenship—empathy, critical thinking, collaborating with others, respecting diversity, understanding inter-connectedness—can be fostered in numerous ways. One important way to help young people develop these competencies is through school systems. It is, after all, much easier to use policy and programs to try to affect change through the levers that education systems have—curriculum, teaching, text books, classroom environment—than through, for example, trying to change behavior inside the family.

There has been much work over the years by educators and social activists who seek to cultivate global citizenship competencies through education.  From this work, we know that extra-curricular activities around global citizenship issues (e.g., a school club, a community service project, a day of awareness) are important and can be useful avenues to engage young people. However, if these after-school activities give different messages than what the schools themselves give, their impact is greatly diminished. For example, if children spend all day in a school where the curriculum has explicit messages about the inferiority of women to men, teachers regularly call on boys over girls, and female teachers are the only ones responsible for cleaning the school grounds, then an afterschool activity on gender equality will likely not deliver major results.  Ensuring that education systems both embody the values of global citizenship in their core business of teaching and learning as well as promote engagement in extra-curricular activities on the topic is an important avenue for social change.  Colombia, Scotland, Korea, and Kenya are all countries that are actively prioritizing this work in their education systems. Building on, amplifying and spreading these existing efforts to new countries could be an important role for Pope Francis and his team.
4. Mobilize multiple voices in society. In addition to using the levers of change available in education systems, influential figures in society have an important role to play in spreading the message about global citizenship.  From music stars and sports celebrities to CEOs and politicians—all have a sphere of influence that can be leveraged towards the values of global citizenship. Role models in society can have powerful influence over young people and having them engage in activities that demonstrate global citizenship competencies can be equally as influential as having them speak about the issues. This is an area in which the Pope and his team at Scholas are already heavily engaged and it certainly is an area of comparative advantage given the celebrity of Pope Francis himself.  
5. Lean-in on the Catholic education tradition.  In many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries, Catholic schools have made a significant contribution to expanding mass education and giving some of the poorest communities access to a quality education. The large network of Catholic schools is an important player—particularly in areas where neither governments nor the Church alone can solve the education problems. These networks, and the 1.2 billion Catholics around the world, are an important asset in the effort to cultivate global citizenship competencies. They can be encouraged not only to continue their work but also to reach out to the non-Catholic community on issues of global citizenship and the support of public education systems writ large.

For those who care about these issues, and particularly for those who have spent years working on education and advancing notions of global citizenship, the idea that Pope Francis and his team at Scholas Occurentes may play a more globally active role in this movement will be welcome news indeed. Regardless of one’s spiritual persuasion, global citizenship is something we can all get behind.

Monday, May 18, 2020

chris macrae is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting. and/or to design next zoom anywhere getting back to empowering service learning of girls/boys sdg communities opens up- 16 years ago best practice in europe was linked by eu knowledgeboard among nhs nurses emotional intelligence networking - whats 2020s local gateways to that eg fans of http://www.fazleabed.com 

Topic 1: camilo-marta-chris latin/franciscan cultures now
Time: wednesday May 20, 2020 10:00 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)


Meeting ID: 769 647 7322
Password: camilomart

dear marta/camilo -friends -  mobile/whatsapp (martacamilo)  

 you are the two people whose life experience i trust most to future of spanish speaking world and franciscan cultures wherever these matter to health and sdgs, reconciliation and deep community building valuing women hold up half the sky- can i ask do you have a copy of paulo freire pedagogy of oppressed? - footnote how alumni of freire triangularise community health-education-finance- microfinance in bangladesh was never ever about empire banking mindsets nor paper currencies macroeconomic political chicanery-- it was about planting rising exponential multipliers of designing resilient community capacity of village health networking round previously illiterate women cut off from any communications- fortunately james grant unicefs greatest leader and the epidemiologist who led swarthmore for many years helped brac leaders start a public health college in dhaka i 2001 which became the greatest legacy coalition of the ngo economy world as sir fazle first brainstormed with japan embassy in dhaka and 30 of the elders of building rural advancement 1972-2012- at jan 2020 world economic forum, soros has invited 20 united scholars networks to get on this case as fast as humanly possible as well as inviting next 20- its not clear which is the first spanish or franciscan speaking scholars network

admittedly i dont know many people in your culture- i spent the 1980s collecting mit driven database on worldwide social needs commissioned by world biggest  corporations- accidentally i led work in asia where corporates wanted english reporting- between us we benchmarked what societies in 50 countries wanted from hundreds of markets with million of hours of interviewing data- asian face is very complicated - 

anyhow
1 this is first zoom info i have sent out - hope i havent mis-coded
it will start at 10am east coast wednesday an time out 1040  ie barcelona 4pm to 4.40pm
my understanding is camilo is somewhere near columbia university new york and marta is in barcelona-both still locked-down?

later today i send a second email with a possible agenda but if by mail whatsapp etc you prefer to change it please do you can think in spanish which i cant so its best if you decide directly if thee is a first win-win between your urgent actions in this virus messed world
chris macrae nih region of washington dc +1 240 316 8157 zoomuni.net

=====================
footnote - details below may be relevant some other time unless they interest you now please go to second email which i will send about an hour after this one

- i dont find it an easy read but all girls empowerment to end poverty is linked by the paulo freire book as well as something jim kim used to call POP- preferential option poor
pop1 be servant leader go liver in community of poorest-

pop2 use your wisdom of world to see what broken systems are poverty trapping these peoples especially the poorest of the poor- if your professional skill is relevant what system change will you need to mediate in your professional world- if its not relevant who will you need to invite to come and live in the community too

pop3 every time there is a leap in tech app it first to partners in health villages or health finance since fintech is easier to code with eg text mobile than the whole of bottom up healthcare

- the essence of mediating freire which is not just pop design but what educators living with the poorest will need to revolutionise- my father's 1986 Economist survey on conflicts embedded anthropologically in english empire education made worse by american siloisation is here -fortunately adam smith had reported this crisis during year 4 of markets and machines - as you probably know 2020 is the 260th year since 2 scots -name of james watt and adam smith - at glasgow university started questioning world on moral innovation of engineering machines and channeling markets- diaspora scots never trusted london or any one single capital to be able to rule over sharing these 2 innovation waves everywhere nature and humans needed diversity of apps

  -maria montessori started this but sadly neither she or gandhi was there to push it through at birth of gov independence of india -  the only thing muhammad yunus would say he agreed with Fazle Abed died 20 dec 2019 on -ditto paul farmer when i talked to him for 30 minutes at central european university because we both arrived early at a meeting- farmer and jim kim or back in boston to franiscanise tracing there through their 40 year old medical service experiential exchange Partners in Health -untold story early 1980s 3 anthropology graduates korean american kim , activist medic farmer, oxford story telling family's ophelia dahl embedded in wellesley in anthropology met at harvard med school where 2 had signed up to ler medicine- paul farmer upset professors as he was already commuting between haiti and boston but the cases he brought excited the last mile health students so much that the professors in this one piece of harvard had to change whence http://www.pih.org was born- by 2014 kim was heading world bank- soros had invested in brac in liberia and sierra leone- the who and nih were doing nothing right on ebola so medccins sans frontieres farmer kim 


genre of ENTREPRENEURIAL REVOLUTION
in 1962 dad got chance at economist to start explaining to prince charles and later romano prodi and mary robinson among others - things went well with charles as he attended 1964 olympics met sony akio morita and emperor family whence japans inward investeny in europe stated in wales but nobody else really understood til dad met soros in early 1980s
mediation/educator=entrepreneur reality
innovatively deming-asian engineering since 50s has led mediation in asia of top down and community up- when led by someone who loves country eg japan emperor family since 1945 or lee kuan yew- much better for youth than ad led democracy especially in times of crisis like covid- i dont know how that asia rising finding translates in latin am though i expect jack ma does- 

-see eg welcome to EconomistJapan.com -searching how americans responded to 15 months of surveys in the economist 76-77 is intriguing

some in congress called dad a community for saying asia suns would now rise and rise a good thing for sustainability since 6/10 of all humans had been locked in asian continent mainly by errors of britannia and japanese colonialism

sadly as a counteraction bill drayton started ashoka- a total misunderstanding of entrepreneurs need to scale positive cash flows-- economically its what they do differently purposefully reinvesting not extracting profits that matters if thriving community sdgs are to be exponentially possible - a decade later things got evermore muddle in american english when the clintons met muammad yunus before bill became president but never met fazleabed- the whole of microcreditsumit never became an experiential curriculum just a grenwashing of what became millennial goals




Sunday, May 17, 2020

 have 2 different sorts of recommendations - there is a very short list of people who this needs to be presented to because they know health but they know ho finance and tech has also got muddled

by presented i mean they need to give you 2 minutes until they then agree they or the top team will respond

the people i can think of are
in boston jim kim or paul farmer both at Partners in Health
in new york george soros
in san francisco larry brilliant
jack ma - if you dont know someone i shortlist go to world record jobs and put name of person in search -if you dont find a good enough explanation of the leaders purpose pls tell me whats missing



i dont have direct access to these people - i do have access to brac unit vice chancellor vincent chang 
can i send this document to him and see if he will give you 2 minutes on whatapp?


something i do the bigger the deeper the more community crucial a youth movement needs to be i also ask who will be it enemies

in virus world nothing is bigger than connecting what you say but the fronllines are locally vulnerable to politicians pharma and big banking that makes money by the opposite systems- i now it sounds unbelievable but please assume this idea has big enemies - some may be the same people who team up between brussels and madrid and surpress catalonia/barcelona

they are the people who big corporations spend billion dollars a year on tv ads or lobbying politicians and perhaps 1 million on corporate social responsibility and then on something that isnt the seed like your proposal to take off as opposed to separate annual events


-while the document explains what needs doing it doesnt boldly explain you have she schools intrapreneur service learning exchange  as critical missing flow- thats the one para you need to document- you are a bit modest in first minute of introducing idea- maybe your husband or other top supporter eg top governor of barcelona international school should say yes marta does know how to get whole schooling system celebrating doing with her

==============================
second thing to do - survey- send this to trusted elders perhaps gifford if you get stared on something else and ask what does he think is missing from this proposal in terms of key processes - eg we need wizard tech - i dont know if he still has wizard tech relationship- its strange the societal part of intel is in oregon but i dont know if he knows them

i will try and seei nazrul is still on email and in barcelona- he knows why microcredit never connected microhealth around queen sofia- actually she visited jamii bora host of kenyan microcreditsummit before queen sofia hosted valladolid summit- ingrid got lift off to jami bra by negotiating health insurance fir ger 200000 members with missionaries hospitals but then in after kenya microcreditsummit ingrid had a stroke and big banking did a hostile bid for the whole of jamii bora- all the great and good of 17 years of microcreditsummit stuood by and let kenya lose this model

if ever we get back to travel again tell me if you can ever add a day in boston to you itineary- i know the waiting rooms of people who ca make this happen in boston



Wednesday, May 6, 2020

new situation to have budget presse historic surplus
every fin is an engineer
crisis helped us see other sdgs need more communications-reality in peoples everyday participation

mayor sees city as platform/ecosystem - orgs should interface with platform to execute their ways forward
sdgs helps ourcity influence global soultions

city networks actionable for us
bloomberg health
mayor helsinki weforum mayor network
would love to be in c40 but not in yet

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

see www.normanmacrae.net to download for free how and why The Economist first asked in 1972 whether we would be wise enough to design a globalisation not trapped by the zero-sum game of pare currencies
by 1984 our team at The Economist were asking whether we parnets and educators of millennials would track effective health services as core to why we invest in leaps in technology

current reporting in
suggest europe hasnt begun to learn that its nastions futures will not be sustained by money ments antics but last mile community health service

when you compare national health services- the uk may be underfunded but nurses are still loved in communities

spain is very peculiar- depending where you qualify annually as top 2000 medics you are assigned your health speciality- community health is not in the top rankings- this elitism and silos of health may yet turn out to be the greatest weakness

all of italy france and spain seem to me to be mixtures of 2 types or economy
idyllic ruralism
global cities where properties are now owned by international banking and by other countries richest

I dont think that idyllic ruralism of retirement has distributed health care systems of the sort the virus need to sustain idyllic rural as the place for retirees- i hope i have misunderstood and wish italy, france and spain my favorite places to relax as a holidaymaker a comeback

I dont thing the eu out of berlin and brussels gets the deepest challenge italy france spain and countries with idyllic rural now face but hope to be proven wrong.It is absolutely clear that 12 years of austerity after subprime made false savings by under-investing in local health - and by not increasingly adding the missing curriculum of peer to peer adolescent health to every nation's schools- see our summary of global missing curricula at www.economistjapan.com

back to the view out of britain where the other big story is the peoples prince charles has become corona positive ...https://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/markets/article-8135759/Was-really-surprising-sterling-plummeted-low-week.html

The pound has plummeted to its lowest level against the dollar since the mid-80s: Why has it fallen so far when the whole world is suffering?

  • The pound tumbled to $1.15 last week, its lowest level since February 1985
  • Before the virus crisis, the pound had lost some appeal as a reserve currency 
  • U.S. Treasury markets are quite popular because of their more robust liquidity  
The pound tumbled to $1.15 last week, its lowest level since 1985, and below the point it tumbled to in the wake of the Brexit vote.
But, unlike Brexit, the coronavirus crisis is a problem affecting the whole world, so why has sterling fallen so hard against the dollar?
Sterling remains a major global currency and UK government bonds are still considered a safe haven, but in times of crisis people rush to what they judge to be the safest places. And for financiers that is usually not the pound, but the American dollar and US Treasury bonds. 
We look back at the last time the pound traded this low against the dollar and why it has tumbled so hard in the coronavirus sell-off.
The pound tumbled to $1.15 on Wednesday, its lowest level since 1985
The pound tumbled to $1.15 on Wednesday, its lowest level since 1985
When the late Paul Volcker took over the U.S. Federal Reserve in 1979, the American economy was suffering an uncommon malady known as 'stagflation' – a mix of high unemployment and inflation.
To defeat this, the Fed raised interest rates to as high as 21.5 per cent at one point. The measure instigated a massive recession that made the austere Volcker a boogeyman for many. Protesting farmers drove around the Fed building in tractors to vent their anger.
Despite the substantial economic cost, the 'Volcker shock' helped to curb price rises. But it had another significant side effect. Investors rushed to purchase U.S. government bonds, thereby causing the dollar to appreciate sharply, making exports uncompetitive.
By February 1985, sterling was trading at a record low $1.05, and the U.S. trade deficit had almost quintupled to $122billion between 1980 and 1985. 
The dollar only began to devalue following agreements at a meeting of finance ministers at New York's Plaza Hotel that September.
Volcker's extraordinary actions were a watershed moment in American financial history. Monetary policy went from the control of politicians to the technocrats, and the financial system started its journey to becoming the behemoth it is today.
An even more kaleidoscopic-shaking situation is rocking today's financial markets. The coronavirus has caused extreme economic as well as social harm in the last few months.
Paul Volcker (right) raised interest rates to as high as 21.5 per cent at one point after he took charge of the U.S. Federal Reserve to help defeat the USA's high inflation levels at the time
Paul Volcker (right) raised interest rates to as high as 21.5 per cent at one point after he took charge of the U.S. Federal Reserve to help defeat the USA's high inflation levels at the time
What financiers are currently doing in response to Covid-19 is making the Volcker Shock look placid by comparison.
But the reaction of the currencies in both instances was quite similar. The pound tumbled to $1.15 last week, its lowest level since those heady days of 1985.
In many ways, this was expected. In times of crisis, people rush to the familiar and the safe. And for financiers that is usually not the pound, but the American dollar.
As Markets.com's Neil Wilson wrote on Wednesday: 'In a crisis like this King Dollar reigns supreme.'
U.S. Treasury markets are popular because of their greater relative depth and more robust liquidity. U.S. Treasuries are the deepest and most liquid assets in the world. 
So remarks Ned Rumpeltin, European Head of Currency Strategy at T.D. Securities: 'Given the circumstances, the U.K. looks like a rather risky proposition right now, so sterling has suffered accordingly.
'Within this, we also think that this highly tense environment has made it difficult for international markets to gain access to U.S. funding for various dollar-denominated exposures. That has fueled this dash for cash that we think has resulted in GBP's weakness.'
Even before the virus crisis, sterling lost some of its appeal as a reserve currency due to the uncertainty over Brexit. 
The referendum in 2016 started a long period of political and economic uncertainty that has left investors nervous Britain will leave with weaker trading links with its largest trading partner.
Now that the coronavirus has relegated negotiations over the future UK-EU trading relationship to the background that uncertainty has been heightened again.
Viraj Patel, an FX and Global Macro Strategist at sotware firm Arkera, calls Brexit and Covid-19 the 'two de-globalisation shocks' to hit the pound in the last four years
Viraj Patel, an FX and Global Macro Strategist at sotware firm Arkera, calls Brexit and Covid-19 the 'two de-globalisation shocks' to hit the pound in the last four years 
Viraj Patel, FX and global macro strategist at Arkera, calls Brexit and Covid-19 the 'two de-globalisation shocks' to hit the pound in the last four years.
'Equally,' he adds, 'bank balance sheet funds moving out of the U.K. banking sector in recent years - as a result of Brexit trade uncertainties - makes the pound slightly more vulnerable this time around.
Sterling has also had to contend with a much more long-term problem that is rarely talked about nowadays. For decades, Britain has run large trade deficits with the rest of the world.
Our economy relies heavily on foreign direct investment to keep the pound relatively stable, so when the taps run low, the pound's value has to contract to make up for the lost capital.
Chancellor says Coronavirus is both economic and health emergency


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Will helicopter money be the antidote to the virus crisis? 

Britain has been told to stay at home, pubs have been ordered to shut and you’re not even allowed to go to the gym instead.
The coronavirus crisis has turned the consumer economy upside down. Businesses and workers risk going bust on an almost unprecedented level, unless a rescue plan that works can be cooked up.
Cutting interest rates and quantitative easing was the medicine in the financial crisis, but that’s not working this time round, so is it time to start up the helicopter and drop some money?
Helicopter money, people's QE and a universal basic income are three of the highly unusual measures suggested, but is that wise? Simon Lambert and Georgie Frost go through the financial looking glass on this podcast. 
Press play above or listen (and please subscribe if you like the podcast) at Apple PodcastsAcastSpotify and Audioboom or visit our This is Money Podcast page.  
Chancellor Rishi Sunak's £330billion bailout package did little to stop the pound sliding. Many investors are asking him to go much further in arresting this decline
Chancellor Rishi Sunak's £330billion bailout package did little to stop the pound sliding. Many investors are asking him to go much further in arresting this decline
Could this not be good for exports? In theory yes, remarks ING's Christopher Turner. However, he warns that spending is being hurt everywhere, 'so the benefits might not be as large as expected.'
If private spending is down everywhere, then governments need to take the mantle and 'do whatever it takes' as so many are asking. However, the U.K.'s colossal stimulus measures have been relatively tame by comparison to other countries.
In a briefing note co-written by Ned Rumpeltin and other senior T.D. Securities executives, they stated: 'Compared to other major countries in the region, it seems the F.X. market judged that the U.K. is behind the curve in terms of its contagion control efforts. Until that conclusion changes, we think sterling still faces downside risks.'
Chancellor Rishi Sunak needs to pull as many financial bunnies out of the hat as he can if he is to calm the markets. It is a tall order, but if £330billion did not do the trick, then hundreds of billions more may be necessary.
He really is going to have to do 'whatever it takes' if the pound is to avoid experiencing a major run. 
Sterling was already up against it before this virus wreaked its havoc across the globe. Caution and half-measures will not stop that.